Feeding the world’s growing population

New Zealand’s reputation as a quality food producer is growing.

Optimising food production

Over the next 50 years farmers around the world will need to produce more food than has been grown over the past 10,000 years.

Best use from a limited resource

Fertiliser helps farmers produce food efficiently by replenishing the soil. But fertiliser needs to be used responsibly.

Responsible and sustainable nutrient management

The Fertiliser Association invests in research and tools to ensure farm profitability while minimising nutrient losses to the environment.

The Fertiliser Association of New Zealand promotes and encourages responsible and scientifically-based nutrient management.

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Timing of application

Fertiliser application should be timed to achieve maximum plant uptake, thereby reducing losses of nutrient to the environment. Ideal timing will be affected by the solubility (mobility) of the nutrient or fertiliser used, crop stage and rate of growth (and therefore its nutrient demand) and the nutrient fixing capability of the soil. Consider also the amount of rainfall and/or irrigation experienced or expected.

Applying fertiliser long before the plant will take up the nutrient exposes the nutrient to potential loss. This is particularly so with nitrogen fertilisers. Maximum responses and minimal nutrient losses will usually occur if fertiliser is applied when plants are growing rapidly. It is especially important to apply highly mobile nutrients at times when plants are actively growing to avoid losses to the environment between application and plant uptake, and thus to maximise the return on the investment. This is particularly important when highly soluble nutrients are applied in high rainfall or irrigation situations.

Application of fertiliser in relation to soil and air temperatures is also important because these conditions affect plant growth and hence nutrient use. For example, applying nitrogen fertiliser to ryegrass when soil temperatures are less than 6°C and falling is likely to be ineffective in stimulating pasture growth because ryegrass stops growing at soil temperatures below 4°C. If it will be some time before temperatures rise and the ryegrass starts to grow again (and take up the nitrogen), the nitrate may be lost through leaching. Nitrogen fertiliser application should be delayed until the pasture is actively growing, especially if considerable rainfall is expected in the meantime.

Fertiliser often requires water to move it to a site where it can be taken up by plants and, in the case of nitrogen, where it is protected from gaseous losses. Timing of fertiliser application in relation to irrigation or rainfall can be critical to determining the risk of gaseous loss.


The Fertiliser Association of New Zealand and Dairy NZ funded development of the Nutrient Management Adviser Certification Programme (NMACP). This industry-wide certification aims to ensure that advisers have the learning, experience and capability to give sound nutrient advice.

Find out more

17 February 2021

New publication showcasing Seventy years of data from the world's longest grazed and irrigated pasture trials, provides an invaluable data resource to help guide farming practices.

9 December 2020

Aqualinc has been awarded the Irrigation New Zealand Innovation in Irrigation Award for 2020, in recognition of their work for the Fertiliser Association on N-Wise irrigation strategies.

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